Thalassemia - Types And Treatment

Thalassemia - Types And Treatment

Thalassemia - Types And Treatment


Brief Summary:

Thalassemia or Mediterranean anemia is a genetic blood disease that causes damage to red blood cells, and it is called by this name because it is widely spread in the Mediterranean region, and it occurs as a result of a defect in the genetic composition of hemoglobin.

Thalassemia Types and Symptoms:

  • Alpha Thalassemia:

Hemoglobin consists of four alpha genetic chains, two from the father and two from the mother, and when a defect or deficiency occurs in this chain, the so-called alpha thalassemia is produced, and its severity varies according to the degree of imbalance or deficiency in the genetic chains, where people do not suffer Thalassemia patients have any symptoms when there is an imbalance in only one of the genetic sequences, which is called static thalassemia, and the person is considered a carrier of the affected gene (Silent Carrier State).
If the deficiency affects two alpha gene sequences, then the case of Minor Alpha Thalassemia will result. The person carrying these genes suffers from very simple symptoms, and they may not be visible, but they can be detected through a blood test.
And when the deficiency in three genetic chains results in severe anemia, and the symptoms that the person suffers range from moderate to severe, and the condition is called hemoglobin H disease, and the blood analysis of the person with this condition shows small and distorted red blood cells, and the patient develops hypertrophy In the spleen, the bone is deformed due to its increased activity to replace the damaged red cells, and the patient needs a blood transfusion to be able to live normally.
But if the deficiency occurs in four genetic sequences, the case is called Alpha Thalassemia Major, and it causes the death of the fetus before birth or after birth.

  • Beta Thalassemia:

Hemoglobin consists of two chains of beta-tort type, each chain from one of the parents, and according to the number of chains in which the disorder occurs, the cases of infection are divided into two parts:
  1. Thalassemia Minor: When the disorder occurs in one of the genetic sequences only, and the patient does not suffer from obvious symptoms other than simple anemia that appears during routine blood tests.
  2. Thalassemia major or thalassemia: In this case, a defect occurs in the two beta genetic chains, and the patient suffers from severe anemia, bone deformity, and an enlarged spleen, and he needs regular blood transfusions to be able to live normally, and these symptoms do not appear when the child is born, but They begin to appear during the first two years of life.

Thalassemia Complications:

The patient will develop thalassemia major and hemoglobin E disease with many complications if it is not treated properly and in a timely manner. These complications include:
  1. Delayed growth of the child.
  2. Enlarged spleen and flatulence.
  3. bone deformity;
  4. Exacerbation of the problem of anemia and a sense of fatigue and constant fatigue.

Thalassemia Treatment:

  • A person with thalassemia major and hemoglobin E disease needs regular and continuous care to prevent various complications of thalassemia such as frequent infections and deterioration of the health condition, As a result, death may occur if necessary precautions are not taken.
  • The patient needs a blood transfusion to raise the level of red blood cells in the blood, and to avoid anemia, and this is periodically.
  • Giving the patient folic acid pills to help form red blood cells.
  • Some people with thalassemia may need to get rid of the excess iron that has accumulated due to the continuous breakdown of red cells, and this can be done with the medication Aldesferal.
  • Some patients with thalassemia major require splenectomy.
  •  Marrow transplantation can be done for patients who are diagnosed early, before complications develop.
Stay Healthy...

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