Kidney Diseases - Overview
The human body contains two kidneys the size of a fist, located near the middle of the back just below the rib cage, and inside each kidney there are about a million small structures called nephrons, the nephron filters the blood and removes toxins and excess water by turning it into urine, then Urine flows through tubes called ureters, and goes to the bladder, which stores urine until a person excretes it, and healthy kidneys secrete hormones that keep bones strong and blood healthy.
There are many causes of damage to the tissues of the kidneys, and this damage may result in the kidneys not being able to remove toxins and excess fluid from the body.
Types of kidney disease:
Chronic kidney disease:
It is a long-term condition in which the kidneys cannot function normally, and kidney tissue is slowly destroyed over several years.
Acute renal failure:
It is a sudden failure in the functions of the kidneys where they cannot filter the blood of toxins. When these toxins accumulate at high levels, the balance of blood components may be disturbed, and the condition occurs quickly within hours or days.
Other kidney problems include:
Cancer, cysts, stones, and infections.
Kidney disease Causes:
- Immune kidney infections.
- Polycystic kidney disease.
- Long-term use of drugs harmful to the kidneys.
- Having a problem slowing the flow of blood to the kidneys.
- Direct damage to the kidneys.
- Ureteral obstruction, which impedes the expulsion of toxins from the body by kidney stones or an enlarged prostate.
Risk Factors Of Kidney Disease:
- Having a family history of kidney disease.
- Hospitalization, especially in critical cases that require hospitalization in intensive care.
- Congestive heart.
- Liver diseases.
Symptoms of kidney disease:
Kidney patients usually do not feel symptoms unless they reach the advanced stages, and symptoms include:
- Tired all the time. Normal kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin (which forms red blood cells). If the kidneys are damaged, the formation of blood is affected and the person develops anemia, which in turn causes a feeling of fatigue and cold.
- Shortness of breath, even after slight exertion: This is either due to fluid accumulation in the lungs or due to anemia.
- feeling weak or dizzy
- Feeling very itchy.
- Swelling in the hands, feet or face: This is because the fluids that are supposed to be excreted by the kidneys remain in the blood.
- The feeling of a strange taste in the mouth that resembles the taste of metal: this is due to the accumulation of harmful substances in the blood.
- Bad breath.
- Upset stomach, feeling sick or vomiting, loss of appetite.
- Bubbles with urine: due to the presence of protein in the urine.
- When the urine is dark in color, or contains blood.
- Lower back pain is not a sign of kidney disease, as the kidneys are above the waist in the back of the body.
Complications of kidney disease:
- Fluid accumulation in the body: acute kidney failure may lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs, causing shortness of breath.
- chest pain;
- Weak bones and an increased risk of fractures.
- Central nervous system damage.
- A decrease in the body's immunity, which may increase the possibility of infection.
- Pericarditis (inflammation of the envelope of the heart): inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart.
- Pregnancy complications, which may pose a risk to the pregnant woman and the fetus.
Diagnosis of kidney disease:
Laboratory circumvention: blood and urine analysis.
Kidney disease treatment:
- Change your lifestyle to a healthy one.
- Adherence to medication to control associated problems (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol).
- In advanced cases of chronic kidney disease may require:
- Kidney transplant.
Prevention of kidney disease:
- Avoid taking over-the-counter medications.
- Control of chronic diseases that may damage the kidneys (such as high blood pressure and diabetes).
- Maintain physical activity.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Eat a healthy balanced diet.
- stop smoking.